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A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease.
Types of Vaccines
- Inactivated Vaccines- contain killed microorganisms. Examples include flu, Hepatitis A & B, HIB, pertussis, inactivated polio, and Prevnar.
- Live Attenuated Vaccines- contain live micro-organisms that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties or which use closely-related but less dangerous organisms. Examples include MMR, oral polio, smallpox, tuberculosis, chickenpox, intranasal influenza, and rotavirus.
- Toxoids- inactivated toxic compounds (not the organism) used to provide defense against toxins produced by bacteria. Examples include diphtheria and tetanus.
- Subunit- rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune system, a fragment of it can create an immune response. Examples include the HPV (human papillomavirus) and HBV (hepatitis B vaccine) vaccines.
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Author : Diba Tillery RN, BSN, IBCLC, CPST